Earthquake Hazard Information Photos of Earthquake Damage, Modes of building Failure Part 1 (Information for interpreting the results of building contest and shake table testing; L. Braile, 03/12/03)

 

In the building contest, we test model buildings on a shake table using accelerations and frequencies that are similar to those associated with actual earthquake shaking that affects buildings.  Many types of building, structure or ground failure are observed in actual earthquake damage.  Many of these failure modes are also visible in the shake table testing of model buildings.  Others, such as poor connection to foundation, fallen objects, or ground failure can be simulated with appropriate modification of the model building and the shake table testing.  Photos of some building damage form some notable earthquakes and some associated intensity maps are shown below.  The examples are classified by the dominant mode of failure observed.

 

 

1.  Soft first story/inadequate shear strength

 

Loma Prieta earthquake damage in San Francisco.  The soft first story is due to construction of garages in the first story and resultant reduction in shear strength. (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

 

Kobe earthquake damage.  Failure of the first story caused partial collapse of upper stories. (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

 

Northridge earthquake soft first story (parking level) damage.  (Photo from: Brown, R.D., Jr., Lessons reaffirmed, extended, or revealed, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 103-106, 1994)

 

 

Northridge earthquake soft first story (parking level) damage.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

Modified Mercalli intensity map for the Northridge earthquake.  (Map from: Dewey, J.W., Intensities and isoseismals, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 85-93, 1994)

 

Modified Mercalli intensity map for the Northridge earthquake area of strongest shaking.  (Map from: Dewey, J.W., Intensities and isoseismals, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 85-93, 1994)

 

Peak acceleration versus distance for the Northridge earthquake.  (Graph from: Mueller, Charles, Ground motion, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 75-84, 1994)

 

Area of strong ground shaking (>0.5g) for the Northridge earthquake.  (Map from: Celebi, Mehmet, and R. D. Brown, Jr., Structural damage, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 94-102, 1994)

 

Mid-story collapse, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

Mid-story collapse, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

 

 

2.  Inadequate attachment of building to foundation

House shifted off its foundation, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Dewey, J.W., Intensities and isoseismals, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 85-93, 1994)

 

 

House shifted off its foundation, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

3.  Column failure/ broken joints/too much weight for building design or construction

Column failure, Loma Prieta earthquake. (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

Column failure on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Celebi, Mehmet, and R. D. Brown, Jr., Structural damage, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 94-102, 1994)

 

Column failure on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Celebi, Mehmet, and R. D. Brown, Jr., Structural damage, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 94-102, 1994)

 

Column failure on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

Column failure on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

Column failure on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

Column failure (inadequate connection to decking) on interstate highway overpass, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Cover photo, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1994)