Earthquake Hazard Information Photos of Earthquake Damage, Modes of building Failure Part 2 (Information for interpreting the results of building contest and shake table testing; L. Braile, 03/12/03)

 

4.  Soil failure/liquefaction/ground failure slumping

 

Ground failure due to liquefaction, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

 

Ground failure due to liquefaction, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

Building tilted by ground failure caused by liquefaction, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/effects-kobe.html)

 

 

 

 

Image Depicting Earthquake Damage - General

Buildings tilted by ground failure caused by liquefaction, Nigata, Japan earthquake. (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/1/1_slides.html)

 

Image Depicting Government Hill School

Partial building collapse caused by ground slumping, 1964 Anchorage, Alaska earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/1/1_slides.html)

 

 

5.  Amplified shaking/building resonance/very narrow-based structure supporting large mass

 

Collapse of expressway supported by central columns, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

 

\

Central column (pier) design for Hanshin Expressway, Kobe, Japan.  (Diagram from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

 

6.  Bending/weak structure for building mass

 

Bending of central columns of expressway, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

Bending of building, Kobe earthquake.  (Photo from: The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake: An EQE Summary Report. April 1995, http://www.eqe.com/publications/kobe/kobe.htm)

 

Bending of columns and partial collapse of parking structure, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Celebi, Mehmet, and R. D. Brown, Jr., Structural damage, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 94-102, 1994)

 

Bending of columns and partial collapse of parking structure, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

Bending of columns and partial collapse of parking structure, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

 

 

 

 

7.  Fallen objects/partial wall collapse

 

Fallen objects (building contents), USGS office in Menlo Park, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

 

Fallen objects in book store, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

Fallen objects in kitchen, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Brown, R.D., Jr., Lessons reaffirmed, extended, or revealed, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 103-106, 1994)

 

Partial wall and parapet collapse, Loma Prieta earthquake.  (Photo from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/bytopic/photos.html)

 

 

Image Depicting Partial Collapse of Masonry Building, Spitak, Armenia

Partial collapse of building, 1988 Armenia earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/1/1_slides.html)

 

Partial wall and parapet collapse, Klamath Falls, Oregon earthquake.  (Photo from: Dewey, J.W., Damages from the 20 September earthquakes near Klamath Falls, Oregon, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 24, No. 3, 121-128, 1993)

 

 

 

Isoseismal map, Klamath Falls earthquake.  (Map from: Dewey, J.W., Damages from the 20 September earthquakes near Klamath Falls, Oregon, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 24, No. 3, 121-128, 1993)

 

 

 

 

Partial wall and parapet collapse, Klamath Falls, Oregon earthquake.  (Photo from: Cover photo, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1993)

 

 

 

Partial wall and parapet collapse, Klamath Falls, Oregon earthquake.  (Photo from: Dewey, J.W., Damages from the 20 September earthquakes near Klamath Falls, Oregon, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 24, No. 3, 121-128, 1993)

 

Partial wall collapse, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/earthquakes/)

 

Partial wall collapse, Northridge earthquake.  (Photo from: Dewey, J.W., Intensities and isoseismals, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Vol. 25, No. 2, 85-93, 1994)