The illustration is the frontispiece from Almagestum Novum (Bologna, 1651) by the Jesuit astronomer Giambattista Riccioli (1598–1671).
In the decades following the condemnation of Galileo, Riccioli was an ardent critic of the Copernican theory.  He conceded that Galileo’s discovery of the phases of Venus had refuted the Ptolemaic system but insisted that Tycho Brahe’s system, in which the earth does not move, captured all the observational and mathematical advantages of the Copernican theory with none of its physical and theological disadvantages.  Riccioli’s book (whose title is a deliberate reference to the “old” Almagest of Ptolemy, now discredited) gives an exhaustive survey of arguments for and against the Copernican theory, and concludes that Tycho Brahe’s system (modified slightly by Riccioli) is more plausible.
    Thus, Riccioli’s frontispiece shows his own version of the Tychonic system weighing more heavily in the scales of evidence than its Copernican rival.  In Riccioli’s variant, Mercury, Venus, and Mars are satellites of the Sun but, unlike Brahe’s original scheme, Jupiter and Saturn are centered on the Earth.  The figure holding the scales and the armillary sphere combines features of Urania (the muse of astronomy) and Astraea (the goddess of justice).  On the left is hundred-eyed Argus, observing the Sun through a telescope held to an eye on his knee.  His words allude to Psalm 8, verse 3: “When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers....”  At the bottom lies the Ptolemy with his discarded system.  Ptolemy rests his hand on the coat of arms of the Prince of Monaco (to whom the Almagestum Novum was dedicated) magnanimously acknowledging the correction of his errors.  At the top are depicted recent astronomical discoveries of the seventeenth century: Mercury and Venus displaying crescent phases; Saturn with two “handles”—this was prior to Huyghens’s ring hypothesis; Jupiter with four moons and two bands parallel to its equator (a feature first noted by Riccioli); a heavily-cratered Moon and what appears to be a meteorite soaring through the heavens like a spotted cannonball.  In the center at the top is the Hebrew word Yah-Veh and a reference to the Wisdom of Solomon 11, verse 20: “But thou hast ordered all things by measure and number and weight.”  On the left and right are quotations from Psalm 19, verse 2: “Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.”
    Although Riccioli’s book had no effect on the debate over the Copernican theory—by the middle of the seventeenth century, almost all scientists and astronomers were Copernicans—it illustrates one of the classic cases of theory choice in the history of science.