Jeff Dukes

Community, ecosystem, and global ecology, biodiversity and biological invasions, human interactions with ecosystems.

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November: "Warmer climates don't necessarily mean more fertile soils, study says" (Delta Farm Press,, others)

September: Discussing sea otters, kelp, and carbon for National Geographic News.

January: "Santa Barbara County Based Research Team Issues Warning About Invasive Plants" (Collaborator Bethany Bradley speaks with KCLU radio.)


December: "Plant studies miss the full effect of climate change" (New Scientist article)

June: "Weeds From Hell in a Greenhouse World" (Climate central story about research on the responses of yellow starthistle to global changes. Related Ecological Applications paper here). Purdue release is here.

April: "Drought-exposed leaves adversely affect soil nutrients, study shows" (Story on research from the Boston-Area Climate Experiment showing how climatic changes can alter the chemistry of decomposing red maple leaves; Covered in Earth Times and other places.)

New book: Weed Biology and Climate Change by Lewis Ziska and Jeffrey Dukes.


April 15: New research coordination network "INTERFACE" begins, with funding from NSF. INTERFACE brings together three groups within the global change research community to improve the design of field experiments, mechanistic understanding of feedbacks, and realism of Earth system model projections. The full title of the project is "An Integrated Network for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research on Feedbacks to the Atmosphere and ClimatE (INTERFACE): Linking experimentalists, ecosystem modelers, and Earth system modelers."

May 1: Start of USDA-funded project examining ecosystem services provided by prairie remnants and restored prairie in the Midwest. Title is "Biocontrol and carbon sequestration in agroecosystems: the role of land use in maximizing ecosystem services to agriculture and society." This is a collaboration with Helen Rowe (PI), Joe Fargione, Ben Gramig, and Jeff Holland.

Feb 4: Comment in Boston Globe article on the different responses of native and invasive plants to changing climate around Walden Pond.

Jan 1: Start of project to identify microclimate-specific mixes of native prairie species that maximize ecosystem services along Indiana roadsides (with funding from IN-DOT; collaboration with Zach Lowe).


August: Most of my lab moved from UMass Boston to Purdue University, where I am in the Departments of Forestry and Natural Resources and Biological Sciences, and where I participate in the Purdue Climate Change Research Center. If you are interested in joining my lab, please contact me by email.

Older news is in the news archive.


Suseela, V., Tharayil, N., Xing, B., Dukes, J. S. In press. Labile compounds in plant litter reduce the sensitivity of decomposition to warming and altered precipitation. New Phytologist.

Auyeung, D.S.N., Suseela, V., Dukes, J.S. 2013. Warming and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations. Global Change Biology 19: 662-676. Article in pdf.

Suseela, V., Dukes, J.S. 2013. The responses of soil and rhizosphere respiration to simulated climatic changes vary by season. Ecology 94: 403-413. Article in pdf.

Smith, N.G., Dukes, J.S. 2013. Plant respiration and photosynthesis in global-scale vegetation models: Incorporating acclimation to temperature and CO2. Global Change Biology 19: 45-63. Article in pdf.

Sorte, C., Ibáñez, I., Blumenthal, D.M., Molinari, N., Miller, L.P., Grosholz, E.D., Diez, J.M., D'Antonio, C.M., Olden, J.D., Jones, S.J., Dukes, J.S. 2013. Poised to prosper? A cross-system comparison of climate change effects on native and non-native species performance. Ecology Letters 16: 261-270. Article in pdf.

Fraser, L.H., Henry, H.A.L., Carlyle, C.N., White, S.R., Beierkuhnlein, C., Cahill Jr., J.F., Casper, B.B., Cleland, E., Collins, S.L., Dukes, J.S., Knapp, A.K., Lind, E., Long, R., Luo, Y., Reich, P.B., Smith, M.D., Sternberg, M., Turkington, R. 2013. Coordinated Distributed Experiments: an emerging tool for testing global hypotheses in ecology and environmental science. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 147-155. Article in pdf.

Ramage, B.S., Roman, L.A., Dukes, J.S. 2013. Relationships between urban tree communities and the biomes in which they reside. Applied Vegetation Science 16: 8-20. Article in pdf.

Rodgers, V.L., Hoeppner, S.S., Daley, M.J., Dukes, J.S. 2012. Leaf-level gas exchange and foliar chemistry of common old-field species responding to warming and precipitation treatments. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 173: 957-970.

Rustad, L., Campbell, J., Dukes, J.S., Huntington, T., Fallon Lambert, K., Mohan, J., Rodenhouse, N. 2012. Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-99. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 48 p. Report available here.

Dieleman, W.I.J., Vicca, S., Dijkstra, F.A., Hagedorn, F., Hovenden, M.J., Larsen, K.S., Morgan, J., Volder, A., Beier, C., Dukes, J.S., King, J., Leuzinger, S., Linder, S., Luo, Y., Oren, R., De Angelis, P., Tingey, D., Hoosbeek, M.R., Janssens, I.A. 2012. Simple additive effects are rare: Responses of biomass and soil processes to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature. Global Change Biology 18: 2681-2693. Article in pdf.

Staudt, A., Leidner, A.K., Howard, J., Brauman, K.A., Dukes, J., Hansen, L., Paukert, C., Sabo, J., Solorzano, L.A., Johnson, K. 2012. Impacts of climate change on already stressed biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services. Pages 5.1-5.36 in: Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity, Ecosystems, and Ecosystem Services: Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Staudinger, M.D., et al., eds. Cooperative report to the 2013 National Climate Assessment. 296 pp.

Steinweg, J.M., Dukes, J.S., Wallenstein, M.D. 2012. Modeling the effects of temperature and moisture on soil enzyme activity: Linking laboratory assays to continuous field data. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 55: 85-92. Article in pdf.

Vicca, S., Gilgen, A.K., Camino Serrano, M., Dreesen, F.E., Dukes, J.S., Estiarte, M., Gray, S.B., Guidolotti, G., Hoeppner, S.S., Leakey, A.D.B., Ogaya, R., Ort, D.R., Ostrogovic, M.Z., Rambal, S., Sardans, J., Schmitt, M., Siebers, M., van der Linden, L., van Straaten, O., Granier, A. 2012. Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation manipulation experiments comparable. New Phytologist 195: 518-522. Article in pdf.

Brzostek, E.R., Blair, J.M., Dukes, J.S., Frey, S.D., Hobbie, S.E., Melillo, J.M., Mitchell, R.J., Pendall, E., Reich, P.B., Shaver, G.R., Stefanski, A., Tjoelker, M.G. and Finzi, A.C. 2012. The effect of experimental warming and precipitation change on proteolytic enzyme activity: positive feedbacks to nitrogen availability are not universal. Global Change Biology 18: 2617-2625. Article in pdf.

Diez, J.M., D'Antonio, C.M., Dukes, J.S., Grosholz, E.D., Olden,, J.D., Sorte, C.J.B., Blumenthal, D.M., Bradley, B.A., Early, R.I., Ibanez, I., Jones, S.J., Lawler, J.J., Miller, L.P. 2012. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 249-257. Article in pdf.

Hoeppner, S.S., Dukes, J.S. 2012. Interactive responses of old-field plant growth and composition to warming and precipitation. Global Change Biology 18: 1754-1768. Article in pdf.

Suseela, V., Conant, R.T., Wallenstein, M.D., Dukes, J.S. 2012. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration vary seasonally in an old-field climate change experiment. Global Change Biology 18: 336-348. Article in pdf.

Bradley, B.A., Blumenthal, D.M., Early, R.I., Grosholz, E.D., Lawler, J.J., Miller, L.P., Sorte, C.J.B., D'Antonio, C.M., Diez, J.M., Dukes, J.S., Ibanez, I., Olden,, J.D. 2012. Global change, global trade, and the next wave of plant invasions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 20-28. Article in pdf.

Aguilera, A.G., Colon-Carmona, A., Kesseli, R., Dukes, J.S. 2011. No accession-specific effect of rhizosphere soil communities on the growth and competition of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027585 Open access article.

Dukes, J.S., Chiariello, N.R., Loarie, S.R., Field, C.B. 2011. Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes. Ecological Applications 21: 1887-1894. Open access article in pdf.

Ziska, L.H., Dukes, J.S. 2011. Weed Biology and Climate Change. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. 248pp.

Tharayil, N., V. Suseela, D. J. Triebwasser, C. M. Preston, P. D. Gerard, and J. S. Dukes. 2011. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive. New Phytologist 191: 132-145. Article in pdf. The definitive version is available at

Shao, G., Dai, L., Dukes, J.S., Jackson, R.B., Tang, L., Zhao, J. 2011. Increasing forest carbon sequestration through cooperation and shared strategies between China and the United States. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 2033-2034. Open access article.

Luo, Y., Melillo, J., Niu, S., Beier, C., Clark, J.S., Classen, A.T., Davidson, E., Dukes, J.S., Evans, R.D., Field, C.B., Czimczik, C.I., Keller, M., Kimball, B.A., Kueppers, L.M., Norby, R.J., Pelini, S.L., Pendall, E., Rastetter, E., Six, J., Smith, M., Tjoelker, M.G., Torn, M.S. 2011. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change. Global Change Biology 17: 843-854. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2011. Responses of invasive species to a changing climate and atmosphere. In: Fifty years of invasion ecology: the legacy of Charles Elton, David M. Richardson, Ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, England. Chapter in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. Climate Change. 2011. Pages 113-117 in: Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions, Simberloff, D., Rejmanek, M., eds. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hooper, D.U., Dukes, J.S. 2010. Functional composition controls invasion success in a California serpentine grassland. Journal of Ecology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01673.x Article in pdf. Supporting information.

Aguilera, A., Alpert, P., Dukes, J.S., Harrington, R. 2010. Ecosystem impacts of the invasive plant Fallopia japonica. Biological Invasions. 12:1243-1252. Article via SpringerLink (definitive version) or in PDF.

Charles, H., Dukes, J.S. 2009. Effects of warming and altered precipitation on plant and nutrient dynamics of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Applications. 19: 1758-1773. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S., Pontius, J., Orwig, D.A., Garnas, J.R., Rodgers, V.L., Brazee, N.J., Cooke, B.J., Theoharides, K.A., Stange, E.E., Harrington, R.A., Ehrenfeld, J.G., Gurevitch, J., Lerdau, M., Stinson, K., Wick, R., Ayres, M.P. 2009. Responses of insect pests, pathogens and invasive species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: What can we predict? Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39: 231-248. Article in pdf.

Rustad, L., Campbell, J., Cox, R., Dukes, J., Huntington, T.G., Magill, A., Richardson, A., Mohan, J., Pontius, J., Rodenhouse, N.L., Watson, M.R. 2009. NE Forests 2100: A synthesis of climate change impacts on forests of the northeastern US and eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39: v-x. Article in pdf.

Gerten, D., Luo, Y., le Maire, G., Parton, W.J., Keough, C., Weng, E., Beier, C., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Dukes, J.S., Sowerby, A., Hanson, P.J., Knapp, A., Linder, S., Nepstad, D., Rustad, L. 2008. Modelled Effects of Precipitation on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones. Global Change Biology. 14: 2365-2379. Article in pdf.

Luo, Y., Gerten, D., le Maire, G., Parton, W.J., Weng, E., Zhou, X., Keough, C., Beier, C., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Dukes, J.S., Emmett, B., Hanson, P.J., Knapp, A., Linder, S., Nepstad, D., Rustad, L. 2008. Modelled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, Temperature, and CO2 on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones. Global Change Biology. 14: 1986-1999. Article in pdf.

Amatangelo, K.L., Dukes, J.S., Field, C.B. 2008. Annual grassland responses to litter manipulation. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 605-612. Article in pdf.

Hellmann, J.J., Byers, J.E., Bierwagen, B.G., Dukes, J.S. 2008. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. Conservation Biology 22: 534-543. Article in pdf.

Lee, H., II, Reusser, D.A., Olden, J.D., Smith, S.S., Graham, J., Burkett, V., Dukes, J.S., Piorkowski, R.J., McPhedran, J. 2008. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 22: 575-584. Article in pdf.

Pyke, C.R., Thomas, R., Porter R.D., Hellmann, J., Dukes, J.S., Lodge, D., Chavarria, G. 2008. Climate change and invasive species policy: interactions, tensions, and synergies. Conservation Biology 22: 585-592. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S., Shaw, M.R. 2007. Responses to changing atmosphere and climate. Pages 218-229 in: Ecology and Management of California Grasslands, Stromberg, M., Corbin, J., and D'Antonio, C., eds. University of California Press, Berkeley. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2007. Tommorow's plant communities: Different, but how? New Phytologist 176: 235-237. Article in pdf.

Theoharides, K.A., Dukes, J.S. 2007. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytologist 176: 256-273. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2007. Fresh perspectives on timeless questions: Faculty response. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 335.

Norby, R.J., Rustad, L.E., Dukes, J.S., Ojima, D.S., Parton, W.J., Del Grosso, S.J., McMurtrie, R.E., Pepper, D.A. 2007. Ecosystem responses to warming and interacting global change factors. Pages 45-58 in: Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, J. Canadell, D. Pataki, L. Pitelka, eds. Springer, New York. Article in pdf.

Vila, M., Corbin, J.D., Dukes, J.S., Pino, J., Smith, S.D. 2007. Linking plant invasions to global environmental change. Pages 93-102 in: Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, J. Canadell, D. Pataki, L. Pitelka, eds. Springer, New York. Article in pdf.

Charles, H., Dukes, J.S. 2007. Impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services. Pages 217-237 in: Biological Invasions, W. Nentwig, ed. Springer, Berlin. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S., Chiariello, N.R., Cleland, E.E., Moore, L.A., Shaw, M.R., Thayer, S., Tobeck, T., Mooney, H.A., Field, C.B. 2005. Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes. PLoS Biology, 3(10): 1829-1837. (Article free to public from PLoS Biology, an open access journal. Synopsis for general audience also available). Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. and Mooney, H.A. 2004. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 77: 411-437. (Article free to public from RCHN, an open access journal) Article in pdf.

Hooper, D.U., Dukes, J.S. 2004. Overyielding among plant functional groups in a long-term experiment. Ecology Letters, 7: 95-105. Article in pdf.

Luo,Y., Su, B., Currie, W.S., Dukes, J.S., Finzi, A., Hartwig, U., Hungate, B., McMurtrie, R., Oren, R., Parton, W.J., Pataki, D., Shaw, R., Zak, D.R., Field, C. 2004. Progressive Nitrogen Limitation of Ecosystem Responses to Rising Atmospheric CO2. BioScience, 54: 731-739. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2003. Burning buried sunshine: human consumption of ancient solar energy. Climatic Change, 61(1-2): 31-44. Article in pdf. Journal homepage. Links to media coverage of this paper.

Hungate, B.A., Dukes, J.S., Shaw, M.R., Luo, Y., Field, C.B. 2003. Nitrogen and climate change. Science, 302: 1512-1513. Article in pdf.

Levine, J.M., Vila, M., D'Antonio, C.M., Dukes, J.S., Grigulis, K., and Lavorel, S. 2003. Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proceedings of the Royal Sociey of London B, 270: 775-781. Article in pdf. Appendix.

Dukes, J.S. 2002. Species composition and diversity affect grassland susceptibility and response to invasion. Ecological Applications, 12(2): 602-617. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. and Hungate, B.A. 2002. Elevated CO2 and litter decomposition in California annual grasslands: which mechanisms matter? Ecosystems, 5(2): 171-183. Abstract. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2002. Comparison of the effect of elevated CO2 on an invasive species (Centaurea solstitialis) in monoculture and community settings. Plant Ecology, 160(2): 225-234. Abstract. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. 2001. Productivity and complementarity in grassland microcosms of varying diversity. Oikos, 94(3):468-480. Article in pdf. (I have included Figure 1 in this pdf file - it was left out of the original electronic publication. The correction with Figure 1 was published in 2001 as Oikos 95(3):549. Erratum in pdf.)

Dukes, J.S. 2001. Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms. Oecologia, 126(4):563-568. Article in pdf. The original HTML publication is available on LINK at

Dukes, J.S. 2000. Will the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration affect biological invaders? In: Invasive Species in a Changing World, H. Mooney and R. Hobbs, eds. Island Press, Washington, pp. 95-113. Preprint in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. and Field, C.B. 2000. Diverse mechanisms for CO2 effects on grassland litter decomposition. Global Change Biology 6 (2): 145-154. Abstract. Article in pdf.

Dukes, J.S. and Mooney, H.A. 1999. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 (4): 135-139. Abstract. Article in pdf.

Bergmann, B.A., Dukes, J., and Stomp, A.-M. 1997. Infection of Pinus radiata with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and long-term growth of detached hairy roots in vitro. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 27(1): 11-22. Abstract.


I grew up in Northern California, attended Brown University as an undergraduate and did my Ph.D. research in the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University. My thesis advisor was Hal Mooney. The core of my dissertation research was published in Oecologia (Dukes 2001) and Ecological Applications (Dukes 2002).

After grad school, I spent two years as a Hollaender Postdoctoral Fellow in the lab of Jim Ehleringer at the University of Utah. I worked on several projects during this time. Early results from one of these projects were published in Ecology Letters (Hooper & Dukes 2004). The project from this time period that garnered the most attention was my paper "Burning buried sunshine," published in Climatic Change (Dukes 2003).

During 2002 and 2003, I helped coordinate the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment. This project, led by Chris Field and in operation since 1998, applied warming, elevated CO2, nitrogen, and water (in a full factorial design) to plots of California grassland (Dukes et al. 2005). A fire that burned through part of the experiment in 2003 changed the experimental design somewhat, and added interesting new angles. I and other researchers on this project have investigated how ecosystems will respond to predicted future climate and atmospheric conditions. We've studied the productivity of ecosystems, interactions among various members of plant communities, carbon storage on land, and other properties of ecosystems. Subsequently, I have collaborated on a data-model intercomparison, and also examined how the various aspects of global change influence the success of yellow starthistle, the invasive species used in some of my previous work (Dukes et al. 2011).

For several years, David Hooper (Western Washington University) and I have studied how the functional group composition and richness of a plant community affect that community's invasibility (e.g., Hooper & Dukes 2010). We are attempting to correlate resource availability with invasibility, and we are examining whether functional group diversity moderates the impact of invaders. Dave has a more detailed description of the project on one of his web pages. I have some photos of the research site here.

I worked with Lindsey Rustad (USFS) and several other researchers on NE Forests 2100. This project compiled and published a synthesis of climatic change research in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada.

With funding from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy (previously from the National Institute for Climatic Change Research and currently from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science division), my group is directing the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Waltham, Massachusetts. The BACE is designed to characterize old-field responses to climate change, and features 4 levels of warming across each of three precipitation treatments. Many other laboratories are collaborating on various aspects of the experiment. I welcome inquiries from researchers, prospective students, and middle- and high-school teachers who are interested in getting involved with the BACE.

I also lead the NSF-funded INTERFACE Research Coordination Network, which seeks to advance global environmental change research by bringing together researchers conducting field experiments, researchers who use ecosystem-scale models, and researchers working on land-atmosphere interactions in Earth system models (ESMs). More detail about the network's activities and goals are at the INTERFACE web site.

Some of the questions being asked in my lab

  • What properties of ecosystems make them susceptible to invasion by non-native species?
  • What properties of ecosystems make them vulnerable to the IMPACTS of invaders?
  • How will the various elements of global change, such as climate change, increasing CO2, and increasing nitrogen deposition affect the species composition of plant communities?
  • Are invasive species favored by global changes?
  • How do changes in community composition alter ecosystem structure and function?
  • How do changes in climate alter ecosystem structure and function?
  • How can we best restore invaded ecosystems?

Major projects being led by my lab include The Boston-Area Climate Experiment and the INTERFACE research coordination network. We also participate in research on the ecosystem services provided by intact and restored prairies, on the role of the soil microbial community in regulating interactions among competing plants, and on a variety of other topics.

For interested students:

Interested in ecological research? Interested in how people are affecting ecosystems? If so, consider joining the lab.

Are you an undergraduate looking for experience, or interested in doing honors research?

I sometimes have openings for motivated undergraduates to conduct research in the lab. I can almost always accommodate students interested in conducting honors research. These students should contact me as early as possible so that we can develop a suitable project. I also sometimes can take on students looking to help with research on a volunteer basis or for credit, or to take on an independent project. If you are interested in working in the lab, please contact me and indicate your range of interests, relevant courses you have taken (or experience), and, if possible, provide me with the names and contact information for references, along with their relationship to you.

Are you considering graduate school?

I am interested in taking on additional graduate students. If you are looking for experience in the field of ecology and you think any of my research topics are interesting, please send me an email with information about yourself. If possible, include information on your interests, classes taken, grades, and GRE scores. I expect students in the lab to work hard, learn a lot, and have a great time. My interests are broad, so projects on a wide variety of topics are possible. There are a variety of avenues through which prospective graduate students can apply to the lab at Purdue, such as through the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, the Department of Biological Sciences, and the Ecological Sciences and Engineering (ESE) Program. For most students, it would be wisest to discuss the range of options with me before applying. If you are an international student and you did not graduate from an English-speaking institution, you should apply to work with me only through the Department of Forestry and Natural resources, unless your score on the TOEFL speaking test is 27 or higher. Purdue has excellent resources for ecological research, including instrument facilities of all kinds on campus, properties and well-equipped field stations throughout Indiana, and good support for students. The Lafayette/West Lafayette area has a low cost of living and a high quality of life. It is also within about an hour's drive of Indianapolis and two hours of Chicago. There is a rich community of ecologists at Purdue, spread across several departments, conducting research around the world. In Forestry and Natural Resources, the ecologists are listed together here. In Biological Sciences, they can be found here. More can be found in Agronomy, Entomology, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, and other departments. Purdue also has a terrific group of researchers working on many aspects of climate change.

Purdue offers a variety of competitive fellowships for students. These include several fellowships for students in underrepresented groups in the sciences; I urge students in these groups to consider applying for them. To be eligible, prospective students should fill out the diversity essay when applying to Purdue.