Lab Director:  
Chang H. Kim
Professor of Immunology
Section Head of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics
Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue Veterinary Medicine

Program Leader
Purdue Institute of Inflammation, Immunology, and Infectious Diseases

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering

Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University

E-Mail Address:
Phone:  765-494-0976, Fax:765-494-9830

Mailing Address:
VPTH RM 126, 725 Harrison St.
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

    Education and Training:

    B.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Biological Science
    M.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Biological Science & Engineering
    Research Scientist,
    LG Chemical
    PhD, Indiana University School of Medicine, Immunology and Hematopoiesis
    Postdoctoral Fellow, Stanford University School of Medicine
    , Immunology and Lymphocyte Trafficking

    Key Research Accomplishments:

    1) Discovered T cells (GC Tfh and Tfr cells) that regulate B cell responses. We found the presence of CD4+ Th cells in germinal centers, and these cells are specialized in helping B cell differentiation and antibody production. Moreover, we discovered the presence of FoxP3+ T cells in germinal centers and these cells suppress the functions of B cells and Tfh cells. This was the first documentation of Tfr cells in the literature.

    2) Established trafficking mechanisms of functionally specialized lymphocytes. We have been studying lymphocyte trafficking for more than two decades. We defined the trafficking receptor profiles and migration behaviors of key effector T cells such as Th1, Th2, Th17, FoxP3+ T cells, and NKT cells along with their effector functions in regulating immune responses and inflammation. Most recently, we reported that innate lymphoid cell subsets such as ILC1 and ILC3 undergo trafficking receptor switches in secondary lymphoid tissues a manner similar to Th cells to migrate into the intestine. In contrast, ILC2 acquire the migration potential in the bone marrow.

    3) Identified the roles of retinoic acid and nuclear hormones in regulating immune responses. We discovered the role of retinoic acid in inducing FoxP3+ T cells. We went on to demonstrate the in vivo role of vitamin A in regulating inflammatory bowel disease. We also found that retinoic acid is required for migration and effector function of Th17 cells in the gut. In addition, we found that progesterone, a female sex hormone, generates FoxP3+ and FoxP3- regulatory T cells, which is perhaps important for suppression of allogeneic immune responses during pregnancy.

    4) Discovered the roles of the gut microbial metabolites in regulating immune responses. The commensal bacteria in the gut produce metabolites that are important for hosts in many different aspects. We found the roles of the gut microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in potentiating epithelial innate immune responses to invading microbes. We also found that SCFAs boost the production of both effector (Th1 and Th17) and IL-10+ regulatory T cells. Recently, we reported that SCFAs support mucosal and systemic B cell responses.

    5) Found chemokines that regulate the homing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Major factors that regulate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were unknown in 1990s. We found that SDF-1 (now commonly called CXCL12) regulates the migration of stem and progenitor cells and demonstrated that it is the most important trafficking factor for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Similarly, we demonstrated that it is the most efficacious chemoattractant for primitive T cell progenitors in the thymus. This finding set the stage for the widespread research on SDF-1 (also called CXCL12) in regulating cell migration and hematopoiesis. Utilizing transgenic mice, we further found that SDF-1 is an important growth factor for stem and progenitor cells.



    Major research areas:

  • Mucosal immunology, inflammation and cancer
  • Migration of innate immune cells and lymphocytes
  • Development  of T cells (FoxP3+, Tr1, andTh17 cells)  and dendritic cells in health and disease
  • Roles of vitamin A  and retinoic acid in regulation of the immune system
  • Roles of microbial metabolites (short chain fatty acids) in regulation of the immune system
  • Roles of hormones in regulation of the immune system
  • Regulation of Tfh, GC-T cells, and B cell antibody production
  • Gut Microbiota and Immune Responses (below: Purdue Germ-Free Animal Facility)

GF isolator

    Purdue News Coverage:

 lab photo

   Selected publications

Kim Lab publication citation impact (H index) in Google Scholar

PUBMED Search for the recent publications

Major Topics Publications
Microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and the immune system Kim M, Qie Y, Park J, Kim CH. Gut Microbial Metabolites Fuel Host Antibody Responses. Cell host & microbe. 2016; 20(2):202-14. LINK

Park J, Kim M, Kang SG, Jannasch AH, Cooper B, Patterson J, Kim CH. Short-chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway. Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Jun 11. doi: 10.1038/mi.2014.4

Kim CH, Park J, Kim M. Gut microbiota-derived short-chain Fatty acids, T cells, and inflammation.
Immune Netw. 2014 Dec;14(6):277-88. doi: 10.4110/in.2014.14.6.277. Epub 2014 Dec 22. Review.

Kim CH. Host and microbial factors in regulation of T cells in the intestine. Frontiers in Immunology. 2013 Jun 10;4:141. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00141.

Kim MH, Kang SG, Park JH, Yanagisawa M, Kim CH. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Activate GPR41 and GPR43 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Promote Inflammatory Responses in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2013 May 7. doi:pii: S0016-5085(13)00708-7. 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.056 LINK
Vitamin A, retinoic acid and the immune system Kim MH, Taparowsky EJ, Kim CH. Retinoic Acid Differentially Regulates the Migration of Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets to the Gut.  Immunity.  2015; 43(1):107-19. NIHMSID: NIHMS698201 LINK

Wang C, Thangamani S, Kim M, Gu BH, Lee JH, Taparowsky EJ, Kim CH. BATF is required for normal expression of gut-homing receptors by T helper cells in response to retinoic acid. J Exp Med. 2013 Mar 11;210(3):475-89. LINK

Kim CH. Retinoic acid, immunity, and inflammation. Vitam Horm. 2011;86:83-101.

Chang J, Thangamani S, Kim MH, Ulrich B, Morris SM Jr, Kim CH. Retinoic acid promotes the development of Arg1-expressing dendritic cells for the regulation of T-cell differentiation. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Apr;43(4):967-78.

Kang SG, Park J, Cho JY, Ulrich B, Kim CH. Complementary roles of retinoic acid and TGF-beta1 in coordinated expression of mucosal integrins by T cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2011, PMID: 20664575

Kang SG, Wang C, Matsumoto S, Kim CH. High and low vitamin A therapies induce distinct FoxP3+ T cell subsets and effectively control intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2009 Oct;137(4):1391-402. LINK

Kang SG, Lim HW, Andrisani OM, Broxmeyer HE, Kim CH. Vitamin A metabolites induce gut-homing FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2007, 179(6):3724-33. LINK
T follicular helper (Tfh)  and regulatory (Tfr) cells and regulation of humoral immunity

Kim CH, Hashimoto-Hill S, Kang SG. Human Tfh and Tfr cells: identification and assessment of their migration potential. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1291:175-86. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2498-1_15.

Betz BC, Jordan-Williams KL, Wang C, Kang SG, Liao J, Logan MR, Kim CH, Taparowsky EJ. Batf coordinates multiple aspects of B and T cell function required for normal antibody responses. J Exp Med. 2010 Apr 26.

Lim HW, Kim CH. Loss of IL-7 Receptor alpha on CD4+ T Cells Defines Terminally Differentiated B Cell-Helping Effector T Cells in a B Cell-Rich Lymphoid Tissue. J Immunol. 2007, 179:7448-56.

Kim CH. Regulation of humoral immunity by FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 2006. Vol. 2(6): 859-868.

Kim JR, Lim HW, Hillsamer P, Kim CH. Human CD57+ germinal center-T cells are the major helpers for GC-B cells and induce class switch recombination. BMC Immunology 2005, 6:3.

Lim, HW, Hillsamer P, Banham AH, and Kim CH, Cutting Edge: Direct Suppression of B Cells by CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells , J Immunol 2005 175: 4180-4183. LINK

Lim HW, Hillsamer P, Kim CH. Regulatory T cells acquire migratory capacity to follicles upon T cell activation and suppress GC-T helper cell-driven B cell responses. 2004, J. Clin. Invest. 114:1640-1649. LINK

Kim CH, Campbell DJ, and Butcher EC, Nonpolarized memory T cells. 2001, Trends in Immunology. 22:527-530.

Kunkel EJ, Kim CH, Lazarus NH, Vierra MA, Soler D, Bowman EP, Butcher EC. CCR10 expression is a common feature of circulating and mucosal epithelial tissue IgA Ab-secreting cells. J Clin Invest. 2003, 111:1001-10.

Roy M, Kim CH, Butcher EC. Cytokine regulation of B cell homing machinery. 2002, J. Immunol. 169:1676.

Campbell DJ, Kim CH and Butcher EC, Separable populations of effector CD4+ T cells mediate B cell help and tissue inflammation. 2001, Nature Immunology, 9:876-881.

Kim CH, Rott LS, Clark-Lewis I, Campbell DJ, Wu L, Butcher EC. Subspecialization of CXCR5+ T cells: B helper activity is focused in a germinal center-localized subset of CXCR5+ T cells. 2001, J. Exp. Med. 193:1373. LINK

Kim CH, Pelus LM, White JR, Appelbaum E, Johanson K, and Broxmeyer HE, CKb-11/MIP-3b/ELC is an efficacious chemoattractant for T- and B-cells. J. Immunol., 1998, 160:2418-2424.
Trafficking and function of effector T cells (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, NKT etc)
Kim CH, Hashimoto-Hill S, Kim M. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells. Trends in immunology. 2016.

Jabeen R, Goswami R, Awe O, Kulkarni A, Nguyen ET, Attenasio A, Walsh D, Olson MR, Kim MH, Tepper RS, Sun J, Kim CH, Taparowsky EJ, Zhou B, Kaplan MH.  Th9 cell development requires a BATF-regulated transcriptional network. J Clin Invest. 2013 Oct 8. pii: 69489. doi: 10.1172/JCI69489.

Wang C, Kang SG, Hogenesch H, Love PE, Kim CH. Retinoic Acid Determines the Precise Tissue Tropism of Inflammatory Th17 Cells in the Intestine. J Immunol. 2010, 184, 5519 -5526

Wang C, Kang SG, Lee J, Sun Z, Kim CH. The roles of CCR6 in migration of Th17 cells and regulation of effector T-cell balance in the gut. Mucosal Immunol. 2009 Mar;2(2):173-83.

Lim HW, Lee J, Hillsamer P, Kim CH. Human Th17 cells share major trafficking receptors with both polarized effector T cells and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 1;180(1):122-9. LINK

Kim CH. The greater chemotactic network for lymphocyte trafficking: Chemokines and beyond. Current Opinion in Hematology 2005, 12:298-304.

Kim CH, Lim HW, Kim JR, Rott L, Hillsamer P, Butcher EC. Unique gene expression program of human germinal center T cells. 2004. Blood. 104: 1952-1960. LINK

Johnston B, Kim CH, Soler D, Emoto M, Butcher EC. Differential chemokine responses and homing patterns of murine TCRalphabeta NKT cell subsets. J Immunol. 2003, 171:2960-9.

Kim CH, Nagata K, and Butcher EC. Dendritic Cells Support Sequential Reprogramming of Chemoattractant Receptor Profiles During Naive to Effector T Cell Differentiation. J. Immunol. 2003. 171(1):152-8.

Campbell DJ, Kim CH, Butcher EC. Chemokines in the systemic organization of immunity. Immunol Rev. 2003, 195:58-71.

Kim CH, Butcher EC, Johnston B. Distinct subsets of human Va24-invariant NKT cells. 2002, Trends in Immunology, 23:516-9.

Kim CH, Johnston Brent and Butcher EC, Trafficking machinery of NKT cells: differential chemokine receptor expression among NKT cell subsets with distinct cytokine-producing capacity. 2002, Blood. 2002;100:11-16. LINK

Andrew DP, Ruffing N, Kim CH (co-first authors), Miao A, Heath H, You-Li, Murphy K, Butcher EC, Wu L, CCR4 expression defines a major subset of circulating non-intestinal memory T cells of both Th1 and Th2 potential. 2001, J. Immunol.166:103.

Kim CH, Kunkel, EJ, Boisvert J, Johnston B, Campbell JJ, Genovese MC, Greenberg HB, and Butcher EC. Bonzo/CXCR6 defines polarized Type 1 memory/effector T cell subsets with extra-lymphoid tissue homing potential. 2001, J. Clin. Invest.107: 595. LINK

Kim CH, Rott LS, Kunkel EJ, Genovese M, Andrew DP, Wu L, and Butcher EC. Rules of chemokine receptor association with T cell polarization in vivo. 2001, J. Clin. Invest, 108:1331. LINK
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and their migration
Broxmeyer HE, Cooper S, Hangoc G, Kim CH. Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 selectively counteracts inhibitory effects of myelosuppressive chemokines on hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation in vitro. 2005. Stem Cells Dev. 14: 199-203.

Kim CH, Qu C, Hangoc G, Cooper S, Feng G-S, and Broxmeyer HE, Abnormal chemokine induced responses of immature and mature hematopoietic cells from motheaten mice: Implication of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in chemokine responses, 1999, J. Exp. Med., 190:681-690. LINK

Youn BS, Kim CH, Smith F, Broxmeyer HE, TECK, an efficacious chemoattractant for human thymocytes, uses GPR-9-6/CCR9 as a specific receptor. 1999, Blood. 94:2533-2536.

Kim CH, Hangoc G, Cooper S, Helgason CD, Yew S, Humphries RK, Krystal G, and Broxmeyer HE, Altered responsiveness to chemokines due to targeted disruption of SHIP. 1999, J. Clin. Invest. 104:1751.
Kim CH, Pelus LM, White JR, and Broxmeyer HE. Rapid communication: Differential chemotactic behavior of developing T cells in response to thymic chemokines. Blood, 1998, 91:4434-4443. LINK

Kim CH, Pelus LM, White JR, and Broxmeyer HE. MIP-3b/ELC/CKb-11, a CC chemokine, is a chemoattractant for myeloid progenitor cells with a specificity for macrophage progenitors. J. Immunol., 1998, 161:2580-2585.

Hromas R, Kim CH, Klemsz M, Krathwohl M, Fife K, et al.Isolation and characterization of Exodus-2, a novel C-C chemokine with a unique 37-amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension. Journal of immunology. 1997; 159(6):2554-8.
Progesterone and the immune system Thangamani S, Kim M, Son Y, Huang X, Kim H, Lee JH, Cho J, Ulrich B, Broxmeyer HE, Kim CH.Cutting edge: progesterone directly upregulates vitamin d receptor gene expression for efficient regulation of T cells by calcitriol. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 1;194(3):883-6.

Kim CH, A functional relay from progesterone to vitamin d in the immune system. DNA Cell Biol. 2015 Jun;34(6):379-82. doi: 10.1089/dna.2015.2857. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Lee JH, Lydon JP, Kim CH. Generation of induced regulatory T cells with improved stability and suppressive activity with progesterone. Eur. J. Immunol. 2012 Jun 28. doi: 10.1002/eji.201142317

Lee JH, Ulrich B, Cho J, Park J, Kim CH. Progesterone promotes differentiation of human cord blood fetal T cells into T regulatory cells but suppresses their differentiation into Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15;187(4):1778-87. PMID: 21768398 LINK

Broxmeyer HE, Cooper S, Kohli L, Hangoc G, Lee Y, Mantel C, Clapp DW, Kim CH. Transgenic Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 Enhances Myeloid Progenitor Cell Survival/Antiapoptosis In Vitro in Response to Growth Factor Withdrawal and Enhances Myelopoiesis In Vivo. J. Immunol. 2003, 170:421-429.
Trafficking and function of Tregs Lee JH, Wang C, Kim CH. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells restrain splenic extramedullary myelopoiesis via suppression of hemopoietic cytokine-producing T cells. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 15;183(10):6377-86.

Kang SG, Piniecki RJ, Hogenesch H, Lim HW, Wiebke E, Braun SE, Matsumoto S, Kim CH.  Identification of a chemokine network that recruits FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells into chronically inflamed intestine. Gastroenterology. 2007, 3: 966-81. LINK

Kim CH. Reining in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells by the sphingosine 1-phosphate-S1P1 axis. Immunol Cell Biol. 2009 Oct;87(7):502-4.

Lee JH, Kang SG, Kim CH. FoxP3+ T cells undergo conventional first switch to lymphoid tissue homing receptors in thymus but accelerated second switch to non-lymphoid tissue homing receptors in secondary lymphoid tissues. 2007, J Immunol 2007 178: 301-311. LINK

Kim CH. Migration and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in hematolymphoid system (review). Exp. Hematol. 2006, 34:1033-40.

Lim HW, Broxmeyer HE, Kim CH. Regulation of trafficking receptor expression in human forkhead box p3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2006 177(2):840-51.  LINK
Cell migration in cancer
Wang C, Lee JH, Kim CH. Optimal population of FoxP3+ T cells in tumors requires an antigen priming-dependent trafficking receptor switch. 2012. PLOS One. 2012;7(1):e30

Braun SE, Chen SE, Foster RG, Kim CH, Hromas R, Broxmeyer, HE, Cornetta K, The CC chemokine CKb-11/MIP-3b/ELC/Exodus3 mediatesnbsp tumor rejection of murine breast cancer cells through natural killer cells. 2000, J. Immunol. 164:4025.

Postdoctoral Fellowship and Graduate Training Opportunities:

Qualifications for graduate students:
High creativity, motivation (self-driven), and work ethic
Significant levels of research experience with a record of publication is preferred

Meet required GRE and TOEFL scores (

Qualifications for postdoctoral fellows:
High creativity, motivation (self-driven), and dedication for research
First author publications in reputable immunology or molecular biology journals (impact factor of 4 or greater)
High productivity in research
Recent PhD graduates

Individuals with a record of productivity and relevant experience in cell and molecular biology and/or immunology are encouraged to apply.  Send curriculum vitae to Dr. Kim (


  Last Revised: Jan 2016