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sola fides, sola scriptura, sola gratia
Holy Roman Empire

Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Charles V (1500-1558)
- King of Spain , 1516-1556
- Holy Roman Emperor, 1519-1556
Frederick III “the Wise”
- Duke of Saxony , 1486-1525
John Calvin (1509-1564)
John of Leiden (c. 1509-1536)

Related Documents (Brophy reader)

Luther, from The Large Catechism

Lutzer, The Twelve Articles of the Peasants of Swabia

Calvin, from Draft of Ecclesiastical Ordinances

Calvin, from Catechism of the Church of Geneva

Luther's Reformation
History 104 / January 14, 2013

I. Luther, the passionate monk
      A. Luther's theology
            1. Reaction against sale of indulgences
            2. Posting the "95 Theses" (Nov. 1, 1517)
            3. Only faith, only scriptures, only grace
      B. Defying church – and emperor
            1. Luther burns the pope's writings (Dec. 1520)
            2. Luther excommunicated (Jan. 1521)
            3. The Edict of Worms (May 1521)

      C. Luther translates the Bible into German
            1. The New Testament (published 1522)
            2. The Old Testament (publshed 1534)
      D. Wittenberg as the movement's epicenter
II. Protestants and society
      A. The Empire in turmoil
            1. The propaganda war
            2. Luther takes sides: the Peasants' Revolt (1525)
      B. The Reformation in the cities
            1. A tighter lid on marriage and sex
            2. Public, not private, charity
            3. Education and pedagogy
III. New directions in Protestant thought
      A. Calvin and Calvinism
      B. Anabaptism