Power Point
available here

Gregorian Calendar
Peace of Westphalia

Philip II (king of Spain, 1556-1598)
Gustavus Adolphus (king of Sweden, 1611-1632)

Related documents (Brophy reader)

Grimmelshausen, from Simplicissimus

Hugo Grotius, from On the Law of War and Peace

Jean Bodin, from On Sovereignty

The Age of Religious Wars
History 104 / January 18, 2013

I. The Gregorian Calendar Reform (1582)
II. A failed "rollback": the wars of Philip II
      A. Suppressing the Calvinist revolt in the Netherlands
              1. Calvinists as iconoclasts
              2. The Duke of Alba's success in the south
              3. The "sea beggars" fight on
              4. A Dutch republic: the United Provinces (1580s)
      B. Intervening against England
              1. A frustrated marriage
              2. Launching the Spanish Armada (1588)
III. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
      A. Estranged camps and the waning of tolerance
      B. Upsetting the balance: Calvinists in Bohemia
      C. Enduring patterns of warfare
              1. Habsburg/Austrian support for Catholics
              2. Northern interventions support the Lutherans
IV. The theory of sovereignty
       A. Power rests in the sovereign
       B. Sovereign states in the international system
             1. The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
             2. A power vacuum in the center of Europe