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Terms and Phrases
the first, second, and third estates
The Edict of Nantes (1598; revoked 1685)
“L'etat, c'est moi.”

Cardinal Richelieu (chief minister, 1624-1642)
Louis XIV (r. 1642-1715; assumes full control of policy in 1661)
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)

Louis XIV, Center of the Universe
History 104 / January 25, 2013

I. Building absolutism in France
        A. Earlier concepts of kingship
                1. Medieval: king as wealthiest, most powerful noble
                2. Early modern: king as father of "his" realm
        B. The theory of absolutism
               1. Divine right
               2. Kings as embodiment of the state
        C. Early efforts at establishing absolute monarchy
               1. Richelieu reorganizes the kingdom
               2. The Fronde (1648-52)
II. The Versailles universe
        A. Suburban center of administration
        B. Demonstration of grandeur
               1. Louis' own supremacy
               2. France 's international power
        C. Playground for the nobility
               1. Keeps them occupied
               2. Side-effect: the court as center of arts & science
III. Paying for Versailles – and all those wars
        A. Mercantilism
        B. Taxation
        C. The expulsion of the Huguenots: an economic disaster