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Victoria (Queen of England, 1837-1901)
Alexander II, Tsar of Russia (r. 1855-1881)
Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia (r. 1894-1917)

Related Documents (Brophy reader)

Ernest Renan, "What Is a Nation?"

Eduard Bernstein, from Evolutionary Socialism

Lenin, from Our Program

European Nation-States in the Age of Mass Politics, 1870-1914
History 104 / March 18, 2013

I. Mass society and mass politics
          A. Expanding the electorate
                   1. Germany’s Reichstag: universal manhood suffrage
                   2. Britain’s Parliament: reform bills of 1867, 1884
                   3. France and the Third Republic
          B. Celebrating the nation
                   1. National symbols
                   2. National holidays
                   3. National traumas
                   4. Integrative figures
II. Competitors to the nation-state
          A. Regionalism and localism
                   1. Italy: north vs. south
                   2. “Peasants into Frenchmen”
          B. Minorities with national aspirations of their own
                   1. Poles in Germany
                   2. Just about every group in Austria-Hungary
          C. Ultramontanism: the resurgence of political Catholicism
                   1. Pius IX vs. the 19th Century
                             > The Syllabus of Errors
                             > The immaculate conception
                             > papal infallibility
                   2. Bismarck’s “cultural conflict”
                   3. Separating church and state in France
          D. The Socialist International
III. Russia’s special path
          A. Freeing the serfs (1861)
          B. State-driven industriazliation – too little, too late?
          C. Defeat and revolution, 1905