Boundary disputes in the Persian Gulf (ca. 1973)

Operation Desert Storm, 1991

No-fly zones in Iraq, 1991-2003

Saddam's Iraq and the International Community
History 300 / November 7, 2013

I. A blind eye: Iraq and the international community in the 1980s
            A. Cold War engagements in Afghanistan
            B. The Iran-Iraq war, 1980-88
                        1. American policy: contain the revolutionary mullahs
                        2. Opportunistic European sales to Iraq
                        3. Saddam’s wars at home (vs. Kurds, Marsh Arabs)
                        4. UN mediation brings a cease-fire
            C. Growing US military presence in the Persian Gulf
II. Saddam oversteps: the 1990 invasion & the UN response
            A. Failed deterrence
                        1. Iraqi threats vs. Kuwait
                        2. The invasion: Aug. 2, 1990
            B. A flurry of UNSC resolutions
            C. Bilateral business: Operation Desert Shield
III. The US doesn't overstep: limited war in 1991
            A. The resolution authorizing force (Nov. 29, 1990)
            B. Last-minute diplomacy fails
            C. Operation Desert Storm stops before Baghdad
                        1. Fear of a disintegrating Iraq
                        2. Fear of Soviet opposition
            D. Policing the post-war order
                        1. The program for disarming Iraq's WMDs
                        2. "No-fly zones" in the north and south
IV. The coalition unravels
            A. Inertia and a lack of clear aims
            B. Resistance to a unipolar world
            C. The "oil-for-food" fiasco
                        1. Sanctions hurt everyday Iraqis...
                        2. ... While the regime's grip tightens
                        3. Opportunities for corruption abound
            D. Saddam's brinkmanship: the crisis of 1998

1990 Resolutions

UNSC 660 (8/2)
UNSC 661 (8/6)
UNSC 662 (8/9)
[click for all 3]

UNSC 665 (8/25)

UNSC 667 (9/16)

UNSC 674 (10/29)

UNSC 678 (11/29)

1991 Resolution

UNSC 687 (4/3)

UNSC 688 (4/5)