The Non-Proliferation Treaty
(July 1, 1968)

NPT Signatories

The Non-Proliferation Treaty
History 300 / October 10, 2013

I. Introduction: the challenge of institutionalizing inequality
II. “Atoms for Peace”: nuclear sharing, of a sort
            A. National controls on nuclear technology
            B. International controls
                        1. The IAEA in Vienna
                        2. A European solution: EURATOM
            C. The “Plowshare” program
III. Sharing within NATO – for military purposes
            A. Polaris rockets for Britain
            B. De Gaulle’s own path: the force de frappe
            C. A Multi-Lateral Force?
IV. Negotiating the NPT
            A. Moscow and Washington reach consensus, 1965-66
                        1. The impetus: China’s bomb (1964)
                        2. An elegant solution: parallel promises
            B. Germany, Italy, and Japan push for changes, 1967-68
                        1. Complaints specific to Europe
                        2. Complaints concerning commercial nuclear sales
                        3. Complaints concerning inequality
            C. The final treaty, July 1, 1968
            D. To sign or not to sign?
                        1. A “non-nuclear conference” (Sept. 1968)
                        2. Important non-signatories
V. The NPT in operation
            A. “Holes” in the treaty structure
            B. The Nuclear Suppliers’ Group, 1975-present
            C. Revision conferences maintain the status quo
            D. Current topics in non-proliferation
                        1. The bilateral U.S. deal with India
                        2. Iran and the bomb

First Tests of Atomic Devices

U. S. (July 1945)

USSR (Aug. 1949)

Britain (Oct. 1952)

France (Feb. 1960)

China (Oct. 1964)

India (May 1974, May 1998)

(May 1998)

North Korea (Oct. 2006, May 2009)