Raúl Prebisch

Kurt Waldheim

The Radical 1970s
History 300 / October 24, 2013

I. Superpower relations in the era of détente, 1969-1975
            A. Nuclear parity and Strategies Arms Limitation (SALT)
            B. Soviet control acknowledged in Eastern Europe
                        1. Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik, 1969-1974
                        2. The Conf on Security and Cooperation in Europe
                                    (= CSCE, Helsinki, Aug. 1975)
            C. Nixon goes to China
                        1. The PRC replaces Taiwan on the UNSC
                        2. Nixon’s summits in Beijing and Moscow (1972)
            D. America in retreat
                        1. Overthrowing Allende (Sept. 1973): pyrrhic victory
                        2. South Vietnam collapses (1973-75)
                        3. Cambodia plunged into genocide (1975-79)
II. North-South battles at the UN
            A. UNCTAD and the G-77
            B. The “New International Economic Order” (NIEO)
                        1. The UNGA resolution, May 1, 1974
                        2. Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States
                        3. Algeria and Mexico as dominant voices
            C. “Zionism = racism” (Nov. 1975)
            D. The fights in UNESCO
            E. Iran’s revolution (1979)
                        1. Radicals victorious: the shah deposed
                        2. Radicals suppressed: the mullahs seize control
III. The ebbing of détente
            A. “Peaceful coexistence” retains its competitive meaning
            B. Moscow’s advances in the Third World
                        1. Proxy wars in Angola (1975-early 1990s)
                                    (Cuba, South Africa)
                        2. Support for Ethiopian dictator (esp. 1977-78)
                        3. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (Dec. 1979)
            C. American backlash
                        1. Carter’s naval buildup
                        2. Boycotting the Moscow Olympics
                        3. Ronald Reagan and the “Second Cold War”

The CSCE Final Act (Aug. 1975)

The NIEO (May 1974)

UNGA Resolution 3379 (Nov. 10, 1975)