Yugoslavia in 1990

Ethnicities in former Yugoslavia, 1991

Areas of Control in Bosnia, Sept. 1994

The Dayton Agreement

1991 Census Results in Bosnia

43.7 % Muslims
31.3% Serbs
17.3% Croats
 5.5% Yugoslavs

Results in Kosovo
82.2% Albanian
10.9% Serb/Montenegrin

Civil Wars and Foreign Interventions in Yugoslavia
History 300 / November 14, 2013

I. The splintering of Yugoslavia
            A. Milosevic rides the nationalist bandwagon in Serbia
            B. Franjo Tudjman revives ethnic exclusivity in Croatia
            C. The first wars of secession, 1991-92
                        1. Slovenia opts out
                        2. The Serbo-Croatian war and “ethnic cleansing”
            D. International norms and the recognition question
                        1. Initial Western response: don’t dismember Yugoslavia!
                        2. The EU recognizes Slovenian & Croatia (Dec. 1991)
                        3. Once the fighting breaks out: stop the violence!
                        4. UN-brokered cease-fire: stabilizing Serb advantage in Croatia
II. The three-way struggle in Bosnia-Herzegovina
            A. Ethno-political splintering: the elections of December 1990
            B. Two partnership equations
                        1. Bosnian Muslims + Bo. Croats ≥ Bosnian Serbs
                        2. Bosnia ÷ (Croatia and Serbia) = no room for Bosnian Muslims!
            C. International recognition & the outbreak of war, April 1992
            D. More ethnic cleansing: the cycle of violence
            E. The UN and “safe areas,” 1993-95
                        > The Srebrenica massacre, July 1995
            F. Resolving the Croatian and Bosnian conflicts, 1995-96
                        1. Serb forces driven out of Croatia
                        2. NATO bombing around Gorazde (Bosnia)
                        3. The Dayton accords: Milosevic as peacemaker
                        4. The NATO deployment
III. The Kosovo Crisis
            A. Kosovo under Milosevic
                        1. Kosovo's integral significance for Serbia
                        2. A "shadow state" of Kosovar Albanians
            B. Escalation into civil war, 1998-99
                        1. The "Kosovo Liberation Army"
                        2. Serbian repression – a full-scale assault
                        3. The UN calls for an "Observer Mission"
            C. NATO's bombing campaign
                        1. Deterrence attempted: the threat to bomb
                        2. Deterrence failed: Serbian forces remain active on the ground
                        3. Bombing – to punish or to protect?
                        4. Serbia crushed
            D. Kosovo's ambiguous status

Slobodan Milosevic

Franjo Tudjman

Alija Izetbegovic

Radovan Karadzic

Ibrahim Rugova

ethnic cleansing

Film clips from
"No Man's Land"

38:47 (UNPROFOR Sarajevo)

46:20 (UNPROFOR Headquarters) to 52:30

1:18:50 (UN helicopter lands) to 1:21:35