Andrew Lu Liu, Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Phone:   (765) 494-4763
Fax: (765) 494-1299
E-mail: andrewliu AT

Office: Grissom 388
315 N. Grant Street
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907



  • Energy and environmental markets, systems and policy modeling and analysis
  • Decentralized algorithms of game theory and their applications in smart grid
  • Optimization, complementarity problems, and variational inequalities, with applications to game theory and industrial organization


  • Associate Professor, 08/2016 - Present
    School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Assistant Professor, 08/2009 - 08/2016
    School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN


  • Senior Associate, ICF International, Fairfax, VA. 09/2005 - 08/2009.


  • Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics and Statistics (2009)
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University
  • Mathematical Sciences (2002)
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University
  • B.S. in Applied Mathematics (2000)
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology


  • Best Publication Award in Energy -- ENRE Section, INFORMS 2007.


  • IE 690: Optimization, Game Theory, and Uncertainty [Syllabus]
  • IE 646: Advanced Decision Theory
  • IE 590: Power Systems and Smart Grid [Syllabus]
  • IE 546: Economic Decisions in Engineering [Syllabus]
  • IE 538: Nonlinear Optimization Algorithms and Models [Syllabus]
  • IE 535: Linear Programming [Syllabus]
  • IE 230: Probability and Statistics in Engineering I


  • Multi-Agent Decentralized Network Interdiction Games, with S. Harikrishanan, A. R. Hota, N. A. Uhan and S. Sundaram. [arXiv]
  • Transmission and Generation Capacity Expansion with Unit Commitment – A Multiscale and Multistage Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming Approach, with Z. Huang and Q. P. Zheng.
  • Two-Stage Stochastic Unit Commitment Models with Explicit Reliability Requirements through Conditional Value-at-Risk, with Y. Huang and Q. P. Zheng.
  • Approximate Dynamic Programming and Duality Methods in Bermudan Credit Default Swap Option Pricing, with B. Kim and T. L. Morin.


  • A. L. Liu and Y. Chen. Price containment in emissions permit markets: Balancing market risk and environmental outcomes. IISE Transactions, online first, 2017. [Link]
  • L. Lu, P. V. Preckel, D. Gotham, and A. L. Liu. An assessment of alternative carbon mitigation policies for achieving the emissions reduction of the Clean Power Plan: Case study for the state of Indiana. Energy Policy, Vol. 96, pp 661 – 672, 2016. [Link]
  • V. Krishnan, J. Ho, B. H. Hobbs, A. L. Liu, J. D. McCalley, M. Shahidehpour, and Q. P. Zheng. Co-optimization of electricity transmission and generation resources for planning and policy analysis: Reivew of concepts and modeling approaches. Energy Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp 297 - 332, 2016. [PDF]
  • Q. P. Zheng, J. Wang, and A. L. Liu. Stochastic optimization for unit commitment -- A review. IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp 1913 - 1924, 2014. [Link]
  • A. L. Liu and B. F. Hobbs. Tacit collusion games in pool-based electricity markets under transmission constraints. Mathematical Programming, Series B, Vol. 140, No. 2, pp 351 - 379, 2013.[PDF]
  • Y. Chen and A. L. Liu. Emissions trading, point-of-regulation and facility siting choices in the electric markets. Journal of Regulatory Economics, online first, 2013. [PDF]
  • C. D. Davis, D. J. Gotham, P. V. Preckel and A. L. Liu. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation. Energy Policy, Vol. 60, pp 122 - 131, 2013.
  • L. S. Han and A. L. Liu. On Nash-Cournot games with price caps. Operations Research Letters Vol. 41, pp 92 - 97, 2013. [PDF]
  • S. Huang, H. Safiullah, J. Xiao, B. Hodge, R. Hoffman, J. Soller, D. Jones, D. Dininger, W. E. Tyner, A. L. Liu, J. F. Pekny. The effects of electric vehicles in the City of Indianapolis. Energy Policy. Vol. 49, pp 442 - 455, 2012. [PDF]
  • S. Huang, J. Xiao, J. F. Pekny, G. V. Reklaitis, and A. L. Liu. Quantifying system level benefits from distributed solar and energy storage. Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 2, pp. 33 - 42, 2012. [PDF]
  • Y. Chen, A. L. Liu, B. F. Hobbs. Economic and emissions implications of load-based, source-based, and first-seller emissions trading programs under California AB32. Operations Research, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 696 - 712, 2011. [PDF]
  • J. E. Harrington, B. F. Hobbs, J.-S. Pang, A. Liu, G. Roch. Collusive game solutions via optimization. Mathematical Programming, Series B Vol. 104, pp 407-435, 2005. [PDF]


  • A. L. Liu, B. H. Hobbs, J. Ho, J. D. McCalley, V. Krishnan, M. Shahidehpour, and Q. P. Zheng. "White Paper: Co-optimization of Transmission and Other Supply Resources." Prepared for Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council and National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. [Link]
  • ICF International and A. L. Liu. "Study on long-term electric and natural gas infrastructure requirements in the Eastern Interconnection." Prepared for Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council and National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. [Link]


  • Z. Zhao and A. L. Liu. Intelligent demand response for electricity consumers: A multi-armed bandit game approach. Proceedings to 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power (ISAP), 2017. [PDF]
  • H. Sreekumaran and A. L. Liu. Equilibrium wind hedge contract structure through Nash Bargaining. Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, 2011. [PDF]
  • J. Xiao, B. S. Hodge, A. L. Liu, J. F. Pekny, and G. V. Reklaitis. Long-term planning of wind farm siting in the electricity grid. Proceedings of 21st European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering -- ESCAPE 21, 2010. [PDF]
  • A. L. Liu. Repeated games in electricity spot and forward markets -- An equilibrium modeling and computational framework. Proceedings of 48th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, 2010. [PDF]
  • T. Brady and A. L. Liu. The analysis of electricity storage location sites in the electric transmission grid. Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, 2010. [PDF]
  • Y. Chen and A. L. Liu. Effects of allowances allocation schemes on the emissions leakage and contract shuffling. Proceedings to 32nd IAEE International Conference, online publication, 2009. [PDF]
  • J. E. Harrington, B. F Hobbs, J.-S Pang, A. Liu, and G. Roch. Collusive game solutions via optimization. Proceedings of the NSF-ONR EPNES II workshop, 2003.


  • A. L. Liu, N. A. Uhan and F. Zhao. Scheduling for Energy Efficient Manufacturing. Energy Efficient Manufacturing with Applications. Editors: J. W. Sutherland and B. S. Linke 2012.


  • California Energy Commission. Investigating climate-change-induced vulnerability of the California northern natural gas energy system and identifying resilience options. (Subcontracted through University of California, Santa Cruz. PI: Yihsu Chen.) Purdue PI: A. L. Liu. Budget: $51,373. Project Period: 2017 - 2018.
  • NSF (CCF-1539462) "CyberSEES: Type 1: Collaborative Research: Sustainability-aware Management of Interdependent Power and Water Systems." A. L. Liu (PI). (Collaborators: Y. Chen and J. Medellin-Azuara ). Budget: $164,307. Project Period: 2016 - 2017.
  • NSF (ECCS-1509536) "Achieving Robust Power System Operations under Uncertainty and Price-Driven Active Demand-Side Participation." X. Lin (PI), A. L. Liu (Co-PI, 50%). Budget: $399,831. Project Period: 2015 - 2018.
  • NSF (CMMI-1234057) "Collaborative Research: The Next-Generation Electricity Capacity and Transmission Expansion Model with Large-Scale Energy Storage and Renewable Resources." A. L. Liu (PI). (Collaborator: Q. P. Zheng). Budget: $208,505. Project Period: 2012 - 2015.
  • Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-12-1-0275) "Decentralized Network Interdiction Games." A. L. Liu (PI), N. A. Uhan (Co-PI). Budget: $297,030. Project period: 2012 - 2015.
  • Department of Energy

    • "STUDY: Conduct Study on Long-term Electric and Natural Gas Infrastructure Requirements in the Eastern Interconnection." (Subcontracted through National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners and ICF International). Purdue PI: A. L. Liu . Purdue budget: $26,868. Project period: 06/2013 - 06/2014.
    • "Whitepaper: Co-Optimization of Transmission and other Supply Resources." (Subcontracted via National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners.) Budget: $150K. Project period: 2012 - 2013. Collaborators: B. F. Hobbs (JHU), J. McCalley (ISU), M. Shahidehpour (IIT), P. T. Sullivan (NREL) and Q. P. Zheng (WVU).
    • "Proposal to Assist the Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) Members with Transmission Planning Services." Budget: $129,652. Project period: 2012 - 2013. D. J. Gotham (PI), A. L. Liu (Co-PI) and P. Preckel (Co-PI)
    • "Crossroads Smart Grid Training Program." Purdue PI: E. J. Dietz. Duration: 2010 - 2012. Budget: $4,699,353. ($24K subcontracted to A. L. Liu)


    Operations Research, Management Science, Mathematical Programming, SIAM Journal on Optimization, Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, Optimization Methods and Software, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Journal of Global Optimization, Networks and Spatial Economics, Optimization and Engineering, IIE Transactions, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, PES Letters, Journal of Energy Engineering


  • Institute for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS)
  • Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM)
  • International Association of Energy Economics (IAEE)
  • IEEE Power & Energy Society (PES)

                                     Last updated: October, 2017